Glucagon is a hormone produced by the alpha cells. Alpha cells are found in the pancreas. It is a nonsteroid or peptide hormone. The molecular weight is 3485 daltons. It raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream. It also increases the concentration of fat. Glucagon is the primary catabolic hormone in the human body. When the blood glucose level drops and is too low, the pancreas will then release glucagon into the bloodstream. This is a natural response. This starts a chain reaction. Glucagon and insulin work together to keep blood glucose levels stable in the bloodstream. This is very important for a person who has diabetes. Glucagon has the opposite effect that insulin does. Glucagon is also released when the body needs additional glucose for other reasons such as with heavy exercising. Once glucagon is released, it does several things such as signaling the liver to break down glycogen and change it to glucose with a process called glycogenesis before it is released into the bloodstream. It helps to break down the triglycerides into fatty acids.
There are glucagon receptors in liver cells. These are called hepatocytes. Glucagon is stored in the liver and the ones found there are called polysaccharide glycogen. It also regulates the rate that glucose is produced in a process called lipolysis. This is mostly done in conditions such as diabetes mellitus one. It also protects the brain and nerves against glucose deficiency. Glucose deficiency happens when the pancreas does not work effectively. Sometimes it does not work at all. Glucagon raises the glucose level in the blood and also decreases fatty acids in the liver. Glucagon regulates the speed of glucose production. It is dependent on the central nervous system of the body even though more study is needed to determine where, When blood sugar drops, the reaction is that less insulin is produced. At the same time, more glucagon is produced. Glucagon can also be produced by the alpha cells that are found in a part of the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans. They are also found in the alpha cells that are located in the stomach. There is some speculation that it can also be produced in other locations. When the levels of glucagon are really high it can cause diseases and problems such as necrolytic migratory erythema, hyperglycemia, or reduced Amino acids. The elevation in glucagon levels can be caused by pancreatic tumors such as glucagonoma. Glucagon shares the exact same amino acid sequences. This is especially true in the N-terminal 29aa.
Here at Anshlabs, we have the Glucagon ELISA kit. It comes in the species of humans or mouse. The ELISA kit contains the material needed to obtain a quantitative measurement. The kit comes with a 96 well microtiter and uses a blood sample. The limit of detection is 21 pg/mL with an assay time of two and a half hours. There is a shelf life of 24 months. This kit is available worldwide. They are for research only.